Volumes

译者:kz 校对:无

On-disk files in a container are ephemeral, which presents some problems for non-trivial applications when running in containers. First, when a container crashes kubelet will restart it, but the files will be lost - the container starts with a clean slate. Second, when running containers together in a Pod it is often necessary to share files between those containers. The Kubernetes Volume abstraction solves both of these problems.

Familiarity with pods is suggested.

Background

Docker also has a concept of volumes, though it is somewhat looser and less managed. In Docker, a volume is simply a directory on disk or in another container. Lifetimes are not managed and until very recently there were only local-disk-backed volumes. Docker now provides volume drivers, but the functionality is very limited for now (e.g. as of Docker 1.7 only one volume driver is allowed per container and there is no way to pass parameters to volumes).

A Kubernetes volume, on the other hand, has an explicit lifetime - the same as the pod that encloses it. Consequently, a volume outlives any containers that run within the Pod, and data is preserved across Container restarts. Of course, when a Pod ceases to exist, the volume will cease to exist, too. Perhaps more importantly than this, Kubernetes supports many type of volumes, and a Pod can use any number of them simultaneously.

At its core, a volume is just a directory, possibly with some data in it, which is accessible to the containers in a pod. How that directory comes to be, the medium that backs it, and the contents of it are determined by the particular volume type used.

To use a volume, a pod specifies what volumes to provide for the pod (the spec.volumes field) and where to mount those into containers(the spec.containers.volumeMounts field).

A process in a container sees a filesystem view composed from their Docker image and volumes. The Docker image is at the root of the filesystem hierarchy, and any volumes are mounted at the specified paths within the image. Volumes can not mount onto other volumes or have hard links to other volumes. Each container in the Pod must independently specify where to mount each volume.

Types of Volumes

Kubernetes supports several types of Volumes:

  • emptyDir
  • hostPath
  • gcePersistentDisk
  • awsElasticBlockStore
  • nfs
  • iscsi
  • flocker
  • glusterfs
  • rbd
  • gitRepo
  • secret
  • persistentVolumeClaim

We welcome additional contributions.

emptyDir

An emptyDir volume is first created when a Pod is assigned to a Node, and exists as long as that Pod is running on that node. As the name says, it is initially empty. Containers in the pod can all read and write the same files in the emptyDir volume, though that volume can be mounted at the same or different paths in each container. When a Pod is removed from a node for any reason, the data in the emptyDir is deleted forever. NOTE: a container crashing does NOT remove a pod from a node, so the data in an emptyDir volume is safe across container crashes.

Some uses for an emptyDir are:

  • scratch space, such as for a disk-based mergesortcw
  • checkpointing a long computation for recovery from crashes
  • holding files that a content-manager container fetches while a webserver container serves the data

By default, emptyDir volumes are stored on whatever medium is backing the machine - that might be disk or SSD or network storage, depending on your environment. However, you can set the emptyDir.medium field to "Memory" to tell Kubernetes to mount a tmpfs (RAM-backed filesystem) for you instead. While tmpfs is very fast, be aware that unlike disks, tmpfs is cleared on machine reboot and any files you write will count against your container's memory limit.

hostPath

A hostPath volume mounts a file or directory from the host node's filesystem into your pod. This is not something that most Pods will need, but it offers a powerful escape hatch for some applications.

For example, some uses for a hostPath are:

  • running a container that needs access to Docker internals; use a hostPath of /var/lib/docker
  • running cAdvisor in a container; use a hostPath of /dev/cgroups

Watch out when using this type of volume, because:

  • pods with identical configuration (such as created from a podTemplate) may behave differently on different nodes due to different files on the nodes
  • when Kubernetes adds resource-aware scheduling, as is planned, it will not be able to account for resources used by a hostPath

gcePersistentDisk

A gcePersistentDisk volume mounts a Google Compute Engine (GCE) Persistent Disk into your pod. Unlike emptyDir, which is erased when a Pod is removed, the contents of a PD are preserved and the volume is merely unmounted. This means that a PD can be pre-populated with data, and that data can be "handed off" between pods.

Important: You must create a PD using gcloud or the GCE API or UI before you can use it

There are some restrictions when using a gcePersistentDisk:

  • the nodes on which pods are running must be GCE VMs
  • those VMs need to be in the same GCE project and zone as the PD

A feature of PD is that they can be mounted as read-only by multiple consumers simultaneously. This means that you can pre-populate a PD with your dataset and then serve it in parallel from as many pods as you need. Unfortunately, PDs can only be mounted by a single consumer in read-write mode - no simultaneous writers allowed.

Using a PD on a pod controlled by a ReplicationController will fail unless the PD is read-only or the replica count is 0 or 1.

Creating a PD

Before you can use a GCE PD with a pod, you need to create it.

gcloud compute disks create --size=500GB --zone=us-central1-a my-data-disk

Example pod

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: test-pd
spec:
  containers:
  - image: gcr.io/google_containers/test-webserver
    name: test-container
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /test-pd
      name: test-volume
  volumes:
  - name: test-volume
    # This GCE PD must already exist.
    gcePersistentDisk:
      pdName: my-data-disk
      fsType: ext4

awsElasticBlockStore

An awsElasticBlockStore volume mounts an Amazon Web Services (AWS) EBS Volume into your pod. Unlike emptyDir, which is erased when a Pod is removed, the contents of an EBS volume are preserved and the volume is merely unmounted. This means that an EBS volume can be pre-populated with data, and that data can be "handed off" between pods.

Important: You must create an EBS volume using aws ec2 create-volume or the AWS API before you can use it

There are some restrictions when using an awsElasticBlockStore volume:

  • the nodes on which pods are running must be AWS EC2 instances
  • those instances need to be in the same region and availability-zone as the EBS volume
  • EBS only supports a single EC2 instance mounting a volume

Creating an EBS volume

Before you can use a EBS volume with a pod, you need to create it.

aws ec2 create-volume --availability-zone eu-west-1a --size 10 --volume-type gp2

Make sure the zone matches the zone you brought up your cluster in. (And also check that the size and EBS volume type are suitable for your use!)

AWS EBS Example configuration

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: test-ebs
spec:
  containers:
  - image: gcr.io/google_containers/test-webserver
    name: test-container
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /test-ebs
      name: test-volume
  volumes:
  - name: test-volume
    # This AWS EBS volume must already exist.
    awsElasticBlockStore:
      volumeID: aws://<availability-zone>/<volume-id>
      fsType: ext4

(Note: the syntax of volumeID is currently awkward; #10181 fixes it)

nfs

An nfs volume allows an existing NFS (Network File System) share to be mounted into your pod. Unlike emptyDir, which is erased when a Pod is removed, the contents of an nfs volume are preserved and the volume is merely unmounted. This means that an NFS volume can be pre-populated with data, and that data can be "handed off" between pods. NFS can be mounted by multiple writers simultaneously.

Important: You must have your own NFS server running with the share exported before you can use it

See the NFS example for more details.

For example, this file demonstrates how to specify the usage of an NFS volume within a pod.

In this example one can see that a volumeMount called nfs is being mounted onto /usr/share/nginx/html in the container web. The volume "nfs" is defined as type nfs, with the NFS server serving from nfs-server.default.kube.local and exporting directory / as the share. The mount being created in this example is writeable.

iscsi

An iscsi volume allows an existing iSCSI (SCSI over IP) volume to be mounted into your pod. Unlike emptyDir, which is erased when a Pod is removed, the contents of an iscsi volume are preserved and the volume is merely unmounted. This means that an iscsi volume can be pre-populated with data, and that data can be "handed off" between pods.

Important: You must have your own iSCSI server running with the volume created before you can use it

A feature of iSCSI is that it can be mounted as read-only by multiple consumers simultaneously. This means that you can pre-populate a volume with your dataset and then serve it in parallel from as many pods as you need. Unfortunately, iSCSI volumes can only be mounted by a single consumer in read-write mode - no simultaneous writers allowed.

See the iSCSI example for more details.

flocker

Flocker is an open-source clustered container data volume manager. It provides management and orchestration of data volumes backed by a variety of storage backends.

A flocker volume allows a Flocker dataset to be mounted into a pod. If the dataset does not already exist in Flocker, it needs to be created with Flocker CLI or the using the Flocker API. If the dataset already exists it will reattached by Flocker to the node that the pod is scheduled. This means data can be "handed off" between pods as required.

Important: You must have your own Flocker installation running before you can use it

See the Flocker example for more details.

glusterfs

A glusterfs volume allows a Glusterfs (an open source networked filesystem) volume to be mounted into your pod. Unlike emptyDir, which is erased when a Pod is removed, the contents of a glusterfs volume are preserved and the volume is merely unmounted. This means that a glusterfs volume can be pre-populated with data, and that data can be "handed off" between pods. GlusterFS can be mounted by multiple writers simultaneously.

Important: You must have your own GlusterFS installation running before you can use it

See the GlusterFS example for more details.

rbd

An rbd volume allows a Rados Block Device volume to be mounted into your pod. Unlike emptyDir, which is erased when a Pod is removed, the contents of a rbd volume are preserved and the volume is merely unmounted. This means that a RBD volume can be pre-populated with data, and that data can be "handed off" between pods.

Important: You must have your own Ceph installation running before you can use RBD

A feature of RBD is that it can be mounted as read-only by multiple consumers simultaneously. This means that you can pre-populate a volume with your dataset and then serve it in parallel from as many pods as you need. Unfortunately, RBD volumes can only be mounted by a single consumer in read-write mode - no simultaneous writers allowed.

See the RBD example for more details.

gitRepo

A gitRepo volume is an example of what can be done as a volume plugin. It mounts an empty directory and clones a git repository into it for your pod to use. In the future, such volumes may be moved to an even more decoupled model, rather than extending the Kubernetes API for every such use case.

Here is a example for gitRepo volume:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: server
spec:
  containers:
  - image: nginx
    name: nginx
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /mypath
      name: git-volume
  volumes:
  - name: git-volume
    gitRepo:
      repository: "[email protected]:me/my-git-repository.git"
      revision: "22f1d8406d464b0c0874075539c1f2e96c253775"

secret

A secret volume is used to pass sensitive information, such as passwords, to pods. You can store secrets in the Kubernetes API and mount them as files for use by pods without coupling to Kubernetes directly. secret volumes are backed by tmpfs (a RAM-backed filesystem) so they are never written to non-volatile storage.

Important: You must create a secret in the Kubernetes API before you can use it

Secrets are described in more detail here.

persistentVolumeClaim

A persistentVolumeClaim volume is used to mount a PersistentVolume into a pod. PersistentVolumes are a way for users to "claim" durable storage (such as a GCE PersistentDisk or an iSCSI volume) without knowing the details of the particular cloud environment.

See the PersistentVolumes example for more details.

downwardAPI

A downwardAPI volume is used to make downward API data available to applications. It mounts a directory and writes the requested data in plain text files.

See the downwardAPI volume example for more details.

Resources

The storage media (Disk, SSD, etc) of an emptyDir volume is determined by the medium of the filesystem holding the kubelet root dir (typically /var/lib/kubelet). There is no limit on how much space an emptyDir or hostPath volume can consume, and no isolation between containers or between pods.

In the future, we expect that emptyDir and hostPath volumes will be able to request a certain amount of space using a resource specification, and to select the type of media to use, for clusters that have several media types.